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Notifications are used to inform users on specific events in the system. ASP.NET Boilerplate provides a pub/sub (publish/subscribe) based real-time notification system.

Sending Models

There are two ways of sending notifications to users:

  • The user subscribes to a specific notification type. Then we publish a notification of this type which is delivered to all subscribed users. This is the pub/sub model.
  • We can directly send a notification to target user(s).

Notification Types

There are also two types of notifications:

  • General notifications are arbitrary type of notifications. "Notify me if a user sends me a friendship request" is an example of this type notifications.
  • Entity notifications are associated to a specific entity. "Notify me if a user comment on this photo" is an entity-based notification since it's associated to a specific photo entity. Users may want to get notifications for some photos, but not for all.

Notification Data

A notification generally includes notification data. For example: The "Notify me if a user sends me a friendship request" notification may have two data properties: sender user name (which user sent this friendship request) and a request note (a note that the user wrote in the request). Note that the notification data type is tightly coupled to the notification types. Different notification types have different data types.

Notification data is optional. Some notifications may not require data. There are some pre-defined notification data types that are enough for most cases. The MessageNotificationData can be used for simple messages and the LocalizableMessageNotificationData can be used for localizable and parametric notification messages. We will see the example usage in later sections.

Notification Severity

There are 5 levels of notification severity, defined in NotificationSeverity enum: Info, Success, Warn, Error and Fatal. Default value is Info.

About Notification Persistence

See the Notification Store section for more information on notification persistence.

Subscribe to Notifications

The INotificationSubscriptionManager provides an API to subscribe to notifications. Examples:

public class MyService : ITransientDependency
    private readonly INotificationSubscriptionManager _notificationSubscriptionManager;

    public MyService(INotificationSubscriptionManager notificationSubscriptionManager)
        _notificationSubscriptionManager = notificationSubscriptionManager;

    //Subscribe to a general notification
    public async Task Subscribe_SentFriendshipRequest(int? tenantId, long userId)
        await _notificationSubscriptionManager.SubscribeAsync(new UserIdentifier(tenantId, userId), "SentFriendshipRequest");    

    //Subscribe to an entity notification
    public async Task Subscribe_CommentPhoto(int? tenantId, long userId, Guid photoId)
        await _notificationSubscriptionManager.SubscribeAsync(new UserIdentifier(tenantId, userId), "CommentPhoto", new EntityIdentifier(typeof(Photo), photoId));   

First, we injected the INotificationSubscriptionManager. The first method subscribes to a general notification, if a user wants to get notified when someone sends a friendship request. The second method subscribes to a notification related to a specific entity (Photo), if the user wants to get notified if anyone writes a comment to a specified photo.

Every notification type should have a unique name (like SentFriendshipRequest and CommentPhoto in the examples)

The INotificationSubscriptionManager also has the UnsubscribeAsync, IsSubscribedAsync, GetSubscriptionsAsync... methods to manage subscriptions.

Publish Notifications

INotificationPublisher is used to publish notifications. Examples:

public class MyService : ITransientDependency
    private readonly INotificationPublisher _notificationPublisher;

    public MyService(INotificationPublisher notificationPublisher)
        _notificationPublisher = notificationPublisher;

    //Send a general notification to a specific user
    public async Task Publish_SentFriendshipRequest(string senderUserName, string friendshipMessage, UserIdentifier targetUserId)
        await _notificationPublisher.PublishAsync("SentFriendshipRequest", new SentFriendshipRequestNotificationData(senderUserName, friendshipMessage), userIds: new[] { targetUserId });

    //Send an entity notification to a specific user
    public async Task Publish_CommentPhoto(string commenterUserName, string comment, Guid photoId, UserIdentifier photoOwnerUserId)
        await _notificationPublisher.PublishAsync("CommentPhoto", new CommentPhotoNotificationData(commenterUserName, comment), new EntityIdentifier(typeof(Photo), photoId), userIds: new[] { photoOwnerUserId });

    //Send a general notification to all subscribed users in current tenant (tenant in the session)
    public async Task Publish_LowDisk(int remainingDiskInMb)
        //Example "LowDiskWarningMessage" content for English -> "Attention! Only {remainingDiskInMb} MBs left on the disk!"
        var data = new LocalizableMessageNotificationData(new LocalizableString("LowDiskWarningMessage", "MyLocalizationSourceName"));
        data["remainingDiskInMb"] = remainingDiskInMb;

        await _notificationPublisher.PublishAsync("System.LowDisk", data, severity: NotificationSeverity.Warn);    

In the first example, we published a notification to a single user. SentFriendshipRequestNotificationData should be derived from NotificationData like this:

public class SentFriendshipRequestNotificationData : NotificationData
    public string SenderUserName { get; set; }

    public string FriendshipMessage { get; set; }

    public SentFriendshipRequestNotificationData(string senderUserName, string friendshipMessage)
        SenderUserName = senderUserName;
        FriendshipMessage = friendshipMessage;

In the second example, we sent a notification to a specific user for a specific entity. Notification data classes don't need to be serialzable normally (since JSON serialization is used by default). But we suggest you mark it as serializable since you may need to move notifications between applications and may want to use binary serialization in the future. Also, as declared before, notification data is optional and may not be required for all notifications.

Note: If we publish a notification to specific users, they don't need to be subscribed to those notifications.

In the third example, we did not define a dedicated notification data class. Instead, we directly used the built-in LocalizableMessageNotificationData with dictionary based data and then published the notification as 'Warn'. LocalizableMessageNotificationData can store dictionary-based arbitrary data (this is also true for custom notification data classes since they also inherit from NotificationData class). We used "remainingDiskInMb" as an argument on localization. The localization message can include these arguments (like "Attention! Only {remainingDiskInMb} MBs left on the disk!" as an example). We will see how to localize it on the client-side section.

User Notification Manager

The IUserNotificationManager is used to manage the notifications of users. It has methods to get, update or delete notifications for a user. You can use it to prepare a notification list page for your application.

Real-Time Notifications

While you can use IUserNotificationManager to query notifications, we generally want to push real-time notifications to the client.

The notification system uses IRealTimeNotifier to send real-time notifications to users. This can be implemented with any type of real-time communication system.

Examples of real-time notifiers:

  • SignalR
  • Email
  • SMS

It's implemented using SignalR in a separated package. The startup templates already have SignalR installed. See the SignalR Integration document for more information.

Note: The notification system calls IRealTimeNotifier asynchronously in a background job. Because of this, notifications may be sent with a small delay.

Multiple Notifiers

ASP.NET Boilerplate supports multiple IRealTimeNotifiers to notify users in different ways.

For example, you can implement an EmailRealTimeNotifier:

public class EmailRealTimeNotifier : IRealTimeNotifier, ITransientDependency
    private readonly IEmailSender _emailSender;
    private readonly UserManager _userManager;

    public EmailRealTimeNotifier(
        IEmailSender emailSender,
        UserManager userManager)
        _emailSender = emailSender;
        _userManager = userManager;

    public async Task SendNotificationsAsync(UserNotification[] userNotifications)
        foreach (var userNotification in userNotifications)
            if (userNotification.Notification.Data is MessageNotificationData data)
                var user = await _userManager.GetUserByIdAsync(userNotification.UserId);
                    to: user.EmailAddress,
                    subject: "You have a new notification!",
                    body: data.Message,
                    isBodyHtml: true

Add it in the PreInitialize method of your module:



When a real-time notification is received via SignalR, ASP.NET Boilerplate triggers a global event on the client-side. You can register it like this to get notifications:

abp.event.on('abp.notifications.received', function (userNotification) {

The abp.notifications.received event is triggered for each received real- time notification. You can register to this event as shown above to get notifications. See the JavaScript event bus documentation for more information on events. Here's an example of the incoming notification JSON for "System.LowDisk":

    "userId": 2,
    "state": 0,
    "notification": {
        "notificationName": "System.LowDisk",
        "data": {
            "message": {
                "sourceName": "MyLocalizationSourceName",
                "name": "LowDiskWarningMessage"
            "type": "Abp.Notifications.LocalizableMessageNotificationData",
            "properties": {
                "remainingDiskInMb": "42"
        "entityType": null,
        "entityTypeName": null,
        "entityId": null,
        "severity": 0,
        "creationTime": "2016-02-09T17:03:32.13",
        "id": "0263d581-3d8a-476b-8e16-4f6a6f10a632"
    "id": "4a546baf-bf17-4924-b993-32e420a8d468"

In this object;

  • userId: The current user id. You don't generally need this since you know the current user.
  • state: Value of UserNotificationState enum. 0: Unread, 1: Read.
  • notification: Notification details.
    • notificationName: Unique name of the notification (same value used while publishing the notification).
    • data: notification data. In this example, we used LocalizableMessageNotificationData (as published in the example above).
      • message: Localizable message information. We can use sourceName and name to localize the message on the UI.
      • type: The notification data type. Full type name, including namespaces. We can check this type while processing the notification data.
      • properties: Dictionary based custom properties.
    • entityType, entityTypeName and entityId: Entity information if this is an entity related notification.
    • severity: Value of NotificationSeverity enum. 0: Info, 1: Success, 2: Warn, 3: Error, 4: Fatal.
    • creationTime: Time of when this notification was created.
    • id: Notification id.
  • id: User notification id.

You can not only log the notification, but you can use the notification data to show notification information to the user. Example:

abp.event.on('abp.notifications.received', function (userNotification) {
    if (userNotification.notification.data.type === 'Abp.Notifications.LocalizableMessageNotificationData') {
        var localizedText = abp.localization.localize(

        $.each(userNotification.notification.data.properties, function (key, value) {
            localizedText = localizedText.replace('{' + key + '}', value);

        alert('New localized notification: ' + localizedText);
    } else if (userNotification.notification.data.type === 'Abp.Notifications.MessageNotificationData') {
        alert('New simple notification: ' + userNotification.notification.data.message);

To be able to process notification data, we should check the data type. This example simply gets a message from the notification data. For the localized message (LocalizableMessageNotificationData), we are localizing the message and replacing parameters. For a simple message (MessageNotificationData), we directly get the message. Of course, in a real project, we will not use the alert function. We can use the abp.notify api instead to show nice UI notifications.

If you need to implement logic like what is shown above, there is an easier and scalable way. You can just use a single line of code to show a UI notification when a push notification is received:

abp.event.on('abp.notifications.received', function (userNotification) {

This shows a UI notification like this (for System.LowDisk notification published above):

It works for built-in notification data types (LocalizableMessageNotificationData and MessageNotificationData). If you have custom notification data types, then you should register data formatters like this:

abp.notifications.messageFormatters['MyProject.MyNotificationDataType'] = function(userNotification) {
    return ...; //format and return message here

This way, showUiNotifyForUserNotification can create the shown messages for your data types. If you just need the formatted message, you can directly use abp.notifications.getFormattedMessageFromUserNotification(userNotification) which is internally used by showUiNotifyForUserNotification.

The startup templates include the code to show UI notifications when a push notification is received.

Notification Store

The notification system uses INotificationStore to persist notifications. This must be implemented in order to make the notification system properly work. You can implement it yourself or use Module Zero which already implements it.

Notification Definitions

You don't have to define a notification to use it. You can just use any notification name without defining it. However, defining it may bring you some additional benefits. For example, you can then investigate all notifications in your application. In this case, we can define a notification provider for our module as shown below:

public class MyAppNotificationProvider : NotificationProvider
    public override void SetNotifications(INotificationDefinitionContext context)
            new NotificationDefinition(
                displayName: new LocalizableString("NewUserRegisteredNotificationDefinition", "MyLocalizationSourceName"),
                permissionDependency: new SimplePermissionDependency("App.Pages.UserManagement")

"App.NewUserRegistered" is the unique name of the notification. We defined a localizable displayName so we can then show it when subscribing to the notification on the UI. And finally, we declared that this notification is available to a user only if he has the "App.Pages.UserManagement" permission.

There are also some other parameters that you can investigate in the code. Note: The notification name is required for a notification definition.

After defining such a notification provider, we must register it in the PreInitialize method of our module, as shown below:

public class AbpZeroTemplateCoreModule : AbpModule
    public override void PreInitialize()


Finally, you can inject and use the INotificationDefinitionManager in your application to get notification definitions. You may then want to prepare an automatic page to allow users to subscribe to those notifications.