Notification System

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    Notifications are used to inform users on specific events in the system. ASP.NET Boilerplate provides a pub/sub based real time notification infrastructure.

    Sending Models

    There are two ways of sending notifications to users:

    • User subscribes to a specific notification type. Then we publish a notification of this type which is delivered to all subscribed users. This is the pub/sub model.
    • We can directly send a notification to target user(s).

    Notification Types

    There are also two types of notifications:

    • General notifications are arbitrary type of notifications. "Notify me if a user sends me a friendship request" is an example of this type notifications.
    • Entity notifications are associated to a specific entity. "Notify me if a user comment on this photo" is an entity based notification since it's associated to a specific photo entity. Users may want to get notifications for some photos, not for all.

    Notification Data

    A notification generally include a notification data. For example: "Notify me if a user sends me a friendship request" notification may have two data properties: sender user name (which user sent this friendship request) and request note (a note that user did write in the request). It's obvious that the notification data type is tightly coupled to notification types. Different notification types have different data types.

    Notification data is optional. Some notifications may not require a data. There are some pre-defined notification data types those can be enough for most cases. MessageNotificationData can be used for simple messages and LocalizableMessageNotificationData can be used for localizable and parametric notification messages. We will see example usage in later sections.

    Notification Severity

    There are 5 levels of notification severity, defined in NotificationSeverity enum: Info, Success, Warn, Error and Fatal. Default value is Info.

    About Notification Persistence

    See Notification Store section for more information on notification persistence.

    Subscribe to Notifications

    INotificationSubscriptionManager provides API to subscribe to notifications. Examples:

    public class MyService : ITransientDependency
        private readonly INotificationSubscriptionManager _notificationSubscriptionManager;
        public MyService(INotificationSubscriptionManager notificationSubscriptionManager)
            _notificationSubscriptionManager = notificationSubscriptionManager;
        //Subscribe to a general notification
        public async Task Subscribe_SentFrendshipRequest(int? tenantId, long userId)
            await _notificationSubscriptionManager.SubscribeAsync(new UserIdentifier(tenantId, userId), "SentFrendshipRequest");    
        //Subscribe to an entity notification
        public async Task Subscribe_CommentPhoto(int? tenantId, long userId, Guid photoId)
            await _notificationSubscriptionManager.SubscribeAsync(new UserIdentifier(tenantId, userId), "CommentPhoto", new EntityIdentifier(typeof(Photo), photoId));   

    First, we injected INotificationSubscriptionManager. First method subscribes to a general notification. User wants to get notified when someone sends a friendship request. Second one subscribes to a notification related to a specific entity (Photo). User wants to get notified if anyone write comment to a specified photo.

    Every notification type should have unique names (like SentFrendshipRequest and CommentPhoto in the samples)

    INotificationSubscriptionManager has also UnsubscribeAsync, IsSubscribedAsync, GetSubscriptionsAsync... methods to manage subscriptions.

    Publish Notifications

    INotificationPublisher is used to publish notifications. Examples:

    public class MyService : ITransientDependency
        private readonly INotificationPublisher _notiticationPublisher;
        public MyService(INotificationPublisher notiticationPublisher)
            _notiticationPublisher = notiticationPublisher;
        //Send a general notification to a specific user
        public async Task Publish_SentFrendshipRequest(string senderUserName, string friendshipMessage, UserIdentifier targetUserId)
            await _notiticationPublisher.PublishAsync("SentFrendshipRequest", new SentFrendshipRequestNotificationData(senderUserName, friendshipMessage), userIds: new[] { targetUserId });
        //Send an entity notification to a specific user
        public async Task Publish_CommentPhoto(string commenterUserName, string comment, Guid photoId, UserIdentifier photoOwnerUserId)
            await _notiticationPublisher.PublishAsync("CommentPhoto", new CommentPhotoNotificationData(commenterUserName, comment), new EntityIdentifier(typeof(Photo), photoId), userIds: new[] { photoOwnerUserId });
        //Send a general notification to all subscribed users in current tenant (tenant in the session)
        public async Task Publish_LowDisk(int remainingDiskInMb)
            //Example "LowDiskWarningMessage" content for English -> "Attention! Only {remainingDiskInMb} MBs left on the disk!"
            var data = new LocalizableMessageNotificationData(new LocalizableString("LowDiskWarningMessage", "MyLocalizationSourceName"));
            data["remainingDiskInMb"] = remainingDiskInMb;
            await _notiticationPublisher.PublishAsync("System.LowDisk", data, severity: NotificationSeverity.Warn);    

    In the first example, we published a notification to a single user. SentFrendshipRequestNotificationData should be derived from NotificationData like that:

    public class SentFrendshipRequestNotificationData : NotificationData
        public string SenderUserName { get; set; }
        public string FriendshipMessage { get; set; }
        public SentFrendshipRequestNotificationData(string senderUserName, string friendshipMessage)
            SenderUserName = senderUserName;
            FriendshipMessage = friendshipMessage;

    In the second example, we sent a notification to a specific user for a specific entity. Notification data classes don't need to be serialzable normally (since JSON serialization is used by default). But it's suggested to mark it as serializable since you may need to move notifications between applications and may want to use binary serialization in the future. Also, as declared before, notification data is optional and may not be required for all notifications.

    Note: If we publish a notification to specific users, they don't need to be subscribed to those notifications.

    In the third example, we did not define a dedicated notification data class. instead, directly used built-in LocalizableMessageNotificationData with dictionary based data and published notification as 'Warn'. LocalizableMessageNotificationData can store dictionary-based arbitrary data (this is also true for custom notification data classes since they also inherit from NotificationData class). We used "remainingDiskInMb" as argument on localization. Localization message can include these arguments (like "Attention! Only {remainingDiskInMb} MBs left on the disk!" in the example). We will see how to localize it in the Client Side section.

    User Notification Manager

    IUserNotificationManager is used to manage notifications of users. It has methods to get, update or delete notifications for a user. You can use it to prepare a notification list page for your application.

    Real Time Notifications

    While you can use IUserNotificationManager to query notifications, we generally want to push real time notifications to the client.

    Notification system uses IRealTimeNotifier to send real time notifications to users. This can be implemented with any type of real time communication system. It's implemented using SignalR in a seperated package. Startup templates have already SignalR installed. See SignalR Integration document for more information.

    Note: Notification system calls IRealTimeNotifier asynchronously in a background job. So, notifications may be sent with a small delay.

    Client Side

    When a real time notification is received, ASP.NET Boilerplate triggers a global event in the client side. You can register like that to get notifications:

    abp.event.on('abp.notifications.received', function (userNotification) {

    abp.notifications.received event is triggered for each received real time notification. You can register to this event as shown above to get notifications. See javascript event bus documentation for more information on events. An example incoming notification JSON for "System.LowDisk" example:

        "userId": 2,
        "state": 0,
        "notification": {
            "notificationName": "System.LowDisk",
            "data": {
                "message": {
                    "sourceName": "MyLocalizationSourceName",
                    "name": "LowDiskWarningMessage"
                "type": "Abp.Notifications.LocalizableMessageNotificationData",
                "properties": {
                    "remainingDiskInMb": "42"
            "entityType": null,
            "entityTypeName": null,
            "entityId": null,
            "severity": 0,
            "creationTime": "2016-02-09T17:03:32.13",
            "id": "0263d581-3d8a-476b-8e16-4f6a6f10a632"
        "id": "4a546baf-bf17-4924-b993-32e420a8d468"

    In this object;

    • userId: Current user id. Generally you don't need this since you know the current user.
    • state: Value of UserNotificationState enum. 0: Unread, 1: Read.
    • notification: Notification details.
      • notificationName: Unique name of the notification (same value used while publishing the notification).
      • data: notification data. In this example, we used LocalizableMessageNotificationData (as published in the example before).
        • message: Localizable message information. We can use sourceName and name to localize message on the UI.
        • type: Notification data type. Full type name, including namespaces. We can check this type while processing the notification data.
        • properties: Dictionary based custom properties.
      • entityType, entityTypeName and entityId: Entity information if this is an entity related notification.
      • severity: Value of NotificationSeverity enum. 0: Info, 1: Success, 2: Warn, 3: Error, 4: Fatal.
      • creationTime: Time of when this notification is created.
      • id: Notification id.
    • id: User notification id.

    Surely, you will not just log the notification. You can use notification data to show notification information to the user. Example:

    abp.event.on('abp.notifications.received', function (userNotification) {
        if ( === 'Abp.Notifications.LocalizableMessageNotificationData') {
            var localizedText = abp.localization.localize(
            $.each(, function (key, value) {
                localizedText = localizedText.replace('{' + key + '}', value);
            alert('New localized notification: ' + localizedText);
        } else if ( === 'Abp.Notifications.MessageNotificationData') {
            alert('New simple notification: ' +;

    To be able to process notification data, we should check the data type. This example simply gets message from notification data. For the localized message (LocalizableMessageNotificationData), we are localizing the message and replacing parameters. For simple message (MessageNotificationData), we directly get the message. Surely, in a real project, we will not use alert function. We can use abp.notify api to show nice UI notifications.

    If you need to implement such a logic above, there is an easier and scaleable way. You can just use single line of code to show a UI notification when a push notification is received:

    abp.event.on('abp.notifications.received', function (userNotification) {

    This shows a UI notification like that (for System.LowDisk notification published above):

    It works for built-in notification data types (LocalizableMessageNotificationData and MessageNotificationData). If you have custom notification data types, then you should register data formatters like that:

    abp.notifications.messageFormatters['MyProject.MyNotificationDataType'] = function(userNotification) {
        return ...; //format and return message here

    Thus, showUiNotifyForUserNotification can create shown messages for your data types. If you just need to the formatted message, you can directly use abp.notifications.getFormattedMessageFromUserNotification(userNotification) which is internally used by showUiNotifyForUserNotification.

    Startup templates include the code to show UI notifications when a push notification is received.

    Notification Store

    Notification system uses INotificationStore to persist notifications. This should be implemented in order to make notification system properly working. You can implement it yourself or use module-zero which already implements it.

    Notification Definitions

    You don't have to define a notification before usage. You can just use any notification name without defining it. But, defining it may bring you some additional benefits. For example, you can then investigate all notifications in your application. In this case, we can define a notification provider for our module as shown below:

    public class MyAppNotificationProvider : NotificationProvider
        public override void SetNotifications(INotificationDefinitionContext context)
                new NotificationDefinition(
                    displayName: new LocalizableString("NewUserRegisteredNotificationDefinition", "MyLocalizationSourceName"),
                    permissionDependency: new SimplePermissionDependency("App.Pages.UserManagement")

    "App.NewUserRegistered" is unique name of the notification. We defined a localizable displayName (then we can show it while subscribing to the notification on UI). And finally, we declared that this notification is available to a user only if he has "App.Pages.UserManagement" permission.

    There are also some other parameters, you can investigate in the code. Only notification name is required for a notification definition.

    After defining such a notification provider, we should register it in PreInitialize event of our module, as shown below:

    public class AbpZeroTemplateCoreModule : AbpModule
        public override void PreInitialize()

    Finally, you can inject and use INotificationDefinitionManager in your application to get notification definitions. Then you may want to prepare a automatic page to allow user to subscribe those notifications.